So how am I doing?

I started this website when I retired, now in its seventh year and below are the stats for 2021, a fairly typical year. My mission has been to teach the basics of fluid physiology to clinical prescribers, and to provide impartial opinions on the various flavours of intravenous therapies available

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Nanobubbles

My Christmas Blog 2021 looks at the fluid physiology of nanobubbles. Clinicians are comfortable with solution of gas molecules in aqueous solutions. We measure the partial pressures of vital gases in blood very frequently, and understand that greater pressure means more molecules (of O2, CO2 etc) per unit volume. We

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Medical Education in a post pandemic world

The traditional paradigm of lecture theatre gatherings, authoritative Textbooks, accredited congresses and conferences has rapidly dwindled. Today people are choosing Twitter Experts, non-peer reviewed electronic publications, and on-line Presentations without live interactions. Love it or loathe it, there is no going back. Fake News communications are increasingly succeeding in getting

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Glycocalyx Special Edition

The American Journal of Pathology Special edition opens with an overview of nanomechanics; the connections between the luminal surface endothelial glycocalyx and the intra-endothelial cortex, largely composed of actin molecules, is emphasised. The sequelae of endothelial glycocalyx injury include enhanced vascular permeability, tissue oedema, augmented leukocyte adhesion, platelet aggregation, and

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A decade of The Glycocalyx Model paradigm.

Original Starling principle paradigm Extended Starling principle or Glycocalyx Model paradigm. Intravascular volume consists of plasma and cellular elements. Intravascular volume consists of glycocalyx volume, plasma volume, and cellular elements. Capillaries separate plasma with high protein concentration from interstitial fluid (ISF) with low protein concentration.  Sinusoidal tissues (marrow, spleen, and

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